ProFormance Metals – The Worlds largest stockholder for BS4 T45 to BS5 T100 to BS6S100
BS4 T45 to BS5 T100 in accordance with BS6S100 condition tube is a very unique seamless Carbon based steel tube that has been used in many applications throughout industry.
This great material has been around for 60+ years and was first designed for applications within the Aerospace Industry for use as airframe structures due to its high strengths and ease of forming and welding. Over the build period many aeroplanes such as the Spitfire, Hurricane and other known Hawker models have used this quality material within its structures (and still do today on historic rebuilds).
The aero industry realised how strong and usable the BS3 T45 to BS3 T100 in accordance with BS4S100 Condition Tubing (what it was known as then) and other applications started to come to life. One major application was the use within pilot seats / crew seats as the material would pass the highly controlled aviation tests and would complete a push test with no issues (the material was put under high G forces without splitting or snapping).
- Tensile: 700 – 900MPa,
- 0.2% Yield 620MPa minimum
- Hardness Test: 201min – 262 max HB or 210min – 275max HV.
From the tubes success in the Aerospace sector, other industries started to take notice especially the motorsports industry. Vehicles needed to faster, lighter and stronger and so the industry needed better qualities of materials to do so. The big issue was a poor elongation (how the tube would stretch/bend). The motorsports industry wanted the material to form so the material structure needed to change. Any aerospace specification is very strict and the tube properties could not be altered under its British Standard designation BS3 T45 to BS3 T100 in accordance with BS4S100 Condition so initial motorsport work had to be carried out without changing or moving outside of the specification.
The manufacturing facilities managed to increase and stabilise the elongation through the cold drawing and heat treatments processes which meant upgrading the specification to BS4 T45 to BS5 T100 in accordance with BS5S100 conditions. The motorsport Industry took to this tube with excellent results and used it to manufacture products such as:
- Roll Cages
- Space Frames
- Impact Protection
- Anti Roll Bars .
The use of this versatile high quality material is still in high demand today. F1, WTCC, WRC, ERC, BTCC, ETCC ,Bikes, Karts and even Cycle Frames use or have used this high tensile carbon manganese tube within their construction. It has also been used for the land speed record breaking Steam powered car, Thrust 2 right up to Thrust SSC and we are also in discussion for a future attempt (details to follow).
As the strengths and usability of the BS4 T45 to BS4 T100 in accordance with BS5S100 Condition Tubing are so high, the defence Industry also have designed and developed vehicles that are required to carry a higher payload and with the introduction of the tube allowed to improve the strengths within the vehicles structure without increasing the weight.
Unlike other materials that are high strength the BS 4T45 tube does not require any pre nor post heat treatments. Unlike other material such as 4130 / 25CRMO4 Chrome Moly, which are close in terms of mechanical strengths but not chemical makeup, do require these processes.
Unfortunately like all excellent products there is always a risk of replication. Over the years the materials name has been shortened to just T45 or BS4 T45 and this has now allowed a loop hole to manufacture carbon seamless tubes through a commercial process and not keeping with the strict manufacturing / inspection processes of the original Aerospace specification.
With this we now see and hear where material manufactured in commercial facilities have been purchased and the material has not reacted in the same way as its full Aerospace manufactured and tested material.
Failures in forming, tensile strength, load strength and general quality in production and finish have all been compromised in order to produce the material at a lower value which has put products and lives at risk.
The FIA and MSA have stated that using the copy commercial manufactured material will cancel any homologation certified against the full Aerospace manufactured tubes thus making the vehicle illegal.
The material has now been upgraded to read the following specification with a view of cancelling the commercial manufactured material. The full specification now reads BS4 T45 to BS5 T100 in accordance with BS6S100 Conditions, this means:
- BS4 T45 is the specification of the chemical composition in the carbon manganese tube.
- BS5 T100 is the specification for manufacturing / inspection procedures for the material.
- BS6 S100 is the inspection procedures for the starting material before cold drawing.
The Certification which your supplier gives should state the most up to date specification BS4 T45 to BS5 T100 in accordance with BS6S100 Conditions.
ProFormance metals certification and stencilling on the tube will have an identification mark which reads
PVB–/ –. This relates to the tubes manufacture date / inspection pass certificate which is then used in the full traceability right back to the original base material and shows that it has been manufactured within aerospace approved facilities and follows full manufacture and Inspection routes.